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Critical Race Theory: 

The Threat to America’s Future


     America faces a grave threat to our

ability to survive as a united people,

working together to create a better

future for all.  That threat is Critical

Race Theory (CRT).

     There are four especially dangerous

foundation stones of CRT.


Click here to download a FACT Sheet on Critical Race Theory

Click here to download a Sample Letter to the Editor

     First, CRT insists that American blacks have enjoyed no progress, or only a very little, since the days of slavery.  We are told that they are still just as oppressed and suffering as they were before 1865.

     Second, CRT claims that the entire American system and culture is built to continue black oppression.  They call this structural, institutional or systemic racism.  Further, they tell us that all or almost all whites are racists who support preserving this racist society.  (They also accuse politically incorrect blacks of being anti-black racists – e.g. calling Justice Clarence Thomas a “sellout”[1].)

     Third, CRT denounces the concept of a colorblind society, in which each person is seen as an individual and can rise or fall on his own merits.  Advocates of CRT say that being colorblind is just another form of racism, and that government policies must be designed to show a preference for blacks.  What they call “equity”, rather than the traditional American goal of equality, must be our nation’s guide in their view.

     Finally, the free-market economy is described as being a form of white racism.  Capitalism, they say, must be brought to an end.

     These beliefs lead to claims so outrageous and silly that it is hard to believe that even liberals can accept them as true.  Back to Top

     There is the claim that the American Revolution was fought to preserve slavery.[2]

     There is the statement that “a positive white identity is an impossible goal.  White identity is inherently racist.”[3]

     There is the accusation that when feminists such as Kamala Harris and Hillary Clinton wear white on important occasions, it symbolizes the “domination” of feminism by white women and white “exploitation” of women of other races.[4]

     There is the warning that white women must not cry in the presence of a black woman, lest it be a traumatic reminder of the black men lynched following false accusations of white women.[5]

     There is the assertion that American racism toward blacks is so strong that “even genocide becomes nearly inevitable”, with American society being compared to “the Holocaust in Germany or ethnic cleansing in Bosnia”.[6]

     There is the declaration that “To love capitalism is to end up loving racism.”[7]

     There is the description of Sarah Palin’s 2008 campaign events as “virtual Klan


     There is the insistence that the “White House” got its name as an attempt to win over segregationists.[9]

     We must be able to respond to this type of outrageous claims, and help people learn the facts.  Americans, and especially our children, must not be brainwashed.


I.  The Question of Progress


     Race relations got off to an unfortunate start in colonial times, as we all recognize.  No one today will defend slavery, an institution as old as human history which was brought to the new World when slaves were purchased from the coastal African tribes and transported to the colonies.[10]  It was legal in all thirteen states in 1776, and survived in Delaware and Kentucky until ratification of the Thirteenth Amendment by the Georgia legislature on December 6, 1865.  Sadly, emancipation was often followed by the further injustice of segregation.

     But it is vital to remember that slavery was abolished and legally-mandated segregation ended.  Lynching's no longer take place. The Ku Klux Klan once had a membership numbered in the millions, held public rallies[11], and was so politically strong that the 1924 Democratic National Convention voted down a resolution to censure it.[12] Today it is a weak and tiny force, its members operating furtively in the shadows because most Americans hold them in such contempt.  Attempts by white supremacists to touch off a race war have had no more success than that of John Brown in 1859, because both whites and blacks prefer to live in peace, overcoming our problems.  Neither race blames the other for all of those problems.

     Unlike in the days of slavery, today no one has to fear that his family will be broken up because some were sold and sent to another place far away.  Instead of being bound to a location, freedom of movement has allowed blacks to relocate first to cities, and now out into the suburbs. 

     The first of the 1961 Freedom Riders who desegregated interstate buses, after passing through Virginia and North Carolina without encountering any attempt to enforce the segregation laws, were beaten in South Carolina and more viciously attacked in Alabama, bringing the trip to an end well short of their destination in New Orleans.[13]  Today blacks travel safely and no longer even need the Green Book to find overnight accommodations. 

     Blacks attend the most elite schools, and hold high positions in business and the nonprofit sector as well as government.

     Blacks now vote and get elected to office, even in areas where that was unthinkable sixty years ago.  We have had a black president, a black vice-president, and the third-ranking official in the leadership of the House majority is black.  Rep. Cori Bush was able to rise from homelessness to be a member of the House of Representatives.[14]  Our current president knows that black support was essential to his nomination and election in 2020.  In fact, this support was so vital that Biden made a deal, promising to appoint a black woman to the Supreme Court in return for the endorsement of black Congressman James Clyburn.[15]  Blacks are now finally represented in the “smoke-filled rooms” of American politics. Back to Top

     Most of us would say that this shows undeniable progress for American blacks.  Yet the leaders of Critical Race Theory see it as an illusion.  To them, the underlying reality remains the same, with blacks trapped as an underclass.  They argue “there is a certain pattern to the births and deaths of racial caste in America.  Time and again, the most ardent proponents of racial hierarchy have succeeded in creating new caste systems . . . .”  Furthermore, “the similarities between these systems of control overwhelm the differences . . . .”[16]

     Ibram Kendi insists that any racial progress is quickly matched by offsetting racist progress, with “the racist force of inequality marching forward, progressing in rhetoric, in tactics, in policies.”[17]  This racism, he explains, is the cause of virtually all human suffering: “mass shootings, arms races and demagogues who polarize nations; shutting down essential organs of democracy; and threatening the life of human society with nuclear war and climate change.”[18]

     Kendi’s pessimism forces him to turn history on its head when he reviews events of the mid-twentieth century and later.  The Supreme Court’s school desegregation decision of 1954 must be dismissed by saying “Warren essentially offered a racist opinion in this landmark case”.[19]  The Civil Rights Act of 1964 “opened the floodgates for new racist ideas to pour in, including the most racist ideas to date.”[20]  The civil rights acts in general were not an attempt to do justice, but only a concession forced by the foreign policy needs of a nation looking for support from non-white countries.[21]

     Have lynching's really disappeared?  No says Kendi, they have been replaced by police murdering blacks, “this terror being perpetrated by gangs of policemen across the nation . . . .”[22]  Michelle Alexander backs up Kendi, saying that “Lynch mobs may be long gone, but the threat of police violence is ever present.”[23]

     In truth, the history of the United States is one of long-term progress in race relations.  The American Revolution, with its Declaration that “all men are created equal”, forced Americans to reconsider slavery.  The fact that many blacks joined the Continental Army and fought for independence reinforced the trend.  What followed was an improvement in the status of black Americans that began immediately and has continued ever since, with the words of the Declaration standing as a constant prod in the direction of that goal.  As the distinguished historian Gordon Wood put it, “The revolution unleashed antislavery sentiments that led to the first abolition movements in the history of the world.”[24]

     The seven northernmost states, where there were fewer slaves,[25] all took action between 1780 and 1804 to bring an end to slavery (though often over a long period of time).[26]  Further south, where slaves were a much larger part of the population and slavery was not abolished, there was at least an increase in the number of slaves freed by their owners.  Even Kendi notes that “The free Black population in Virginia, for instance, leaped from 1,800 in 1782 to 12,766 in 1790 and then to 30,570 in 1810.”[27]  By 1850, freedom had come for 89% of the blacks in Delaware and 45% in Maryland.[28]  Debates over emancipation continued in the states where slavery was legal into the middle of the nineteenth century,[29] with the people of Missouri and Maryland freeing their slaves in 1864.[30]  Emancipation finally became nationwide with the ratification of the Thirteenth Amendment at the end of 1865. Back to Top

     Although the freedmen were far better off than when enslaved, they still faced prejudice and discrimination.  Segregation, by custom and law, put obstacles in their path.  Even the Fourteenth and Fifteenth Amendments were poorly enforced.

     However, World War II helped white Americans to see that racial segregation and other forms of racial discrimination were inconsistent with the cause for which the war had been fought.  Federal courts began striking down some laws, including those related to schools.  The Civil Rights Act of 1964 and the Voting Rights Act of 1965 provided broad protection against most forms of discrimination.  Additional laws for Federal funding of education and aid to the poor spent billions on poor blacks, giving them a chance to rise.  By the end of the century, more blacks were in the middle class than living in poverty.[31]

More recently, under President Trump, we saw black unemployment drop to an unprecedented level.

     This progress is undeniable, yet CRT does deny it.  The 1619 Project went so far as to avoid any mention of Martin Luther King and Frederick Douglass,[32] two black men who worked tirelessly and successfully to bring about change – men who should be inspirational examples for blacks and whites seeking a better society.  Also erased from CRT history is Robert Moses, an iconic figure of the Civil Rights Movement.[33]  His great sin, to them, was his confidence that black youth could achieve in today’s America.  With the Algebra Project, Moses pressed ahead with his effort for “‘math literacy’ as a crucial steppingstone to college and employment, an often difficult process among underserved students.”[34]   That shows us how far CRT must go to twist American history into its gloomy and hopelessly racist framework.  It must “cancel” some of this nation’s great leaders, especially those who are black.


II.  The Question of Systemic Racism


     Claiming that the whole American system has racism built in, and that whites seek to keep it that way, is the keystone of Critical Race Theory.  In fact, the 1619 project insists that “Anti-black racism runs in the very DNA of this country.”[35]

     By blaming the system, they shift responsibility away from the individual and put the burden on government to make things right.  That is why Ibram Kendi ridicules the idea that black people could benefit from this rather conventional advice: 

“[A]ttend church regularly, acquire English literacy, learn math, adopt trades, avoid vice, legally marry and maintain marriages, evade [avoid?] lawsuits, avoid expensive delights, abstain from noisy and disorderly conduct, always act in a civil and respectable manner, and develop habits of industry, sobriety, and frugality.”[36]

     Many parents, of all colors, give their children similar advice, knowing that it will improve their chances of advancement in the world.  Such advice can be rejected only if one believes the system is so hopelessly rigged that nothing can help – nothing except government. Back to Top

     Michelle Alexander, in The New Jim Crow, makes that very argument of hopelessness in regard to “mass incarceration”.  Young black men cannot be expected to obey the law, she says, because “This system is better designed to create crime . . . .”.[37]  In a systemically racist environment, they “will continue to make mistakes and break the law for reasons that may or may not be justified . . . .”[38]

     Robin DiAngelo’s severe case of white guilt forces her to say that we live in a system where “collective prejudice is backed by the power of legal authority and institutional control”, which is ‘transformed into racism.”  She insists that “everyone discriminates”, and goes so far as to claim that all whites “see ourselves as entitled to, and deserving of, more than people of color deserve.”[39]

     Kendi is confident that nothing but racism can be responsible for the failure of so many blacks.  “When you truly believe that the racial groups are equal, then you also believe that racial disparities must be the result of racial discrimination.”[40]

     Yet Americans of all colors know that it makes a difference whether we study and learn in school, stay out of trouble with the law, work diligently at our jobs, and treat family, friends, and neighbors according to the Golden Rule.  Such behavior may not guarantee success, but taking the opposite path almost guarantees difficulties and suffering.

     Opportunity is there, no matter what CRT says.  We have already mentioned Cori Bush, once homeless but now a member of Congress.  Michelle Alexander, while commenting on the difficulties faced by black men after prison, calls it “remarkable” that so “many somehow manage to survive and stay out of prison against all the odds.”[41]  Perhaps making the decision to obey the law is not as difficult as she thinks.

     Washington Post reporter Leon Dash followed the day-to-day life of Rosa Lee Cunningham, a poor black woman living in Washington, D.C.  Most of her children were content to follow her example of an existence funded by welfare, supplemented by illegal income from drug dealing, prostitution, etc.  However, two of her sons rejected that lifestyle, determined to become self-sufficient.  Both succeeded, and there is little reason to believe the other children could not have done the same – had they chosen to try.  Dash even mentions that Cunningham had ten brothers and sisters, eight of whom rose out of poverty.[42]

     Certainly, the attitudes of whites have changed in ways that greatly benefit blacks, something which is admitted even in pro-CRT literature.  Alexander concedes that as long ago as “the early 1980’s, survey data indicated that 90 percent of whites thought black and white children should attend the same schools, 71 percent disagreed with the idea that whites have a right to keep blacks out of their neighborhoods, 80 percent indicated they would support a black candidate for president, and 66 percent opposed laws prohibiting racial intermarriage. . . . [T]he mere fact that large majorities of whites were, by the early 1980’s, supporting the antidiscrimination principle reflected a profound shift in racial attitudes.   The margin of support for colorblind norms has only increased since then.”[43]

     We do a great disservice to the black poor when we tell them that their condition is hopeless, that racism has locked them into poverty, and that nothing they do will allow them to advance themselves.

     And it appears that black teenagers already know the truth.  According to a Washington Post poll, black teens were more likely (94%) to think that they could someday become rich than any other racial group (91% for white teens).[44]


III. The Question of a Colorblind Society

     Most Americans are pleased that our nation has moved a long way towards being a colorblind society.  We want everyone, as Martin Luther King urged, to be judged by the content of their character rather than the color of their skin.  We want everyone to have a chance to get ahead by their own efforts, neither helped nor hindered by race.


     That dream is not shared by the advocates of Critical Race Theory.  Their dream is an endless array of government programs that deliberately favor blacks over whites.  The Biden administration adopted this point of view when it created a special $4 billion program to help black farmers while excluding whites – a program which was quickly stopped in Federal court because of its blatantly unconstitutional racism.[45]

     Kendi states it quite bluntly.  “The most threatening racist movement is not the alt right’s unlikely movement for a White enthnostate, but the regular American’s drive for a ‘race-neutral’ one.”  He insists that “The only remedy to racist discrimination is antiracist discrimination.”[46]  This leads him to criticize as “racist” employers who base hiring and firing on job performance, no matter how race-neutral, if it leads to fewer black employees.[47]Back to Top

     Alexander is even more explicit in her comments.  “Colorblindness, though widely touted as the solution, is actually the problem. . . . in fact, it can be a form of cruelty.”[48]  She asks “When will we (finally) become a colorblind society?” and answers, “With courage, we should respond, Hopefully, never.”[49]  (The emphasis is hers.)

     Abandoning equality in favor of what they call “equity” means having a goal of equality of result, not equality of opportunity.  Kendi, once again, is very honest about this.  “If Black people make up 13.2 percent of the US population, then Black people should make up somewhere close to 13 percent of the Americans killed by the police, somewhere close to 13 percent of the Americans sitting in prisons, somewhere close to owning 13 percent of US wealth.”[50]

     It is this point of view that demands “reparations” for slavery, which would require people who never owned a slave to give money to people never held in slavery.  Money would be taken from those who worked to earn it, and given to those who had not.  Kendi goes even further, demanding that the Constitution be amended to guarantee equality of outcome.  His amendment, replacing our democratic republic with his version of Plato’s guardians, would put unelected “experts” in charge of examining everything done by national, state, and local governments, with the power of overruling their laws so as to guarantee that wealth, imprisonment, etc. would all be approximately equal by race.  Even “racist ideas”, as defined by these “experts”, would be illegal (good-bye First Amendment, hello thought police).[51]

     Critical race theory demands that we return to an era when nearly everyone noticed race and allowed racial stereotypes to govern behavior.  We have come a long way since then.  Do most Americans really want to turn back to clock to a highly race-conscious society?  There is no proof that the they do, and much evidence that they do not.  A 2020 poll by the Pew Research Center found that only 34% of Americans support “companies taking race and ethnicity into account in employment decisions” and only 27% support for the same in college admissions.[52]  A study of white parents found that “Most white parents who speak with their children about race adopt a colorblind rhetoric, telling their children that people may ‘look different’ but that ‘everyone is the same’.  They also emphasize the importance of treating ‘everyone the same’.”[53]

     For decades, Americans have been moving toward a colorblind society.  We must not allow Critical Race Theory to throw that into reverse.


IV.  The Question of Free Market Capitalism


     Critical Race Theory sees free market capitalism as something invented by whites and inextricably tied to racism.

     The CRT approach shows an unmistakable tinge of Marxism (see, for example, Kendi’s praise for the founding of the Communist Party USA)[54], though often with little more than a shallow understanding of Marxism itself.  CRT is happy to find an ally in favor of overthrowing a free economy and replacing it with strong government control, and is probably delighted that Marxists, unlike liberals, are honest in saying that such a massive transfer of wealth to the poor will have to come from the middle class as well as the wealthy.

     The anti-capitalism of CRT starts with the claim that capitalism and racism were born as twins, and have always been inseparable.  The logic of that position leads to the  conclusion that “Antiracist policies cannot eliminate class racism without anti-capitalist policies.”[55]

     With this understanding, capitalism can be blamed for racism and just about everything else.  Alexander believes that “Violence in struggling black communities . . . is also traceable to the brutalities of global capitalism.”[56]  DiAngelo tells us that the American ideology behind racism includes “individualism, the superiority of capitalism as an economic system, and democracy as a political system . . . .”[57]  Kendi sees “Capitalists seeking increased profit margins . . .” as driving racism.[58]

     Yet it was the free-market capitalist economy, especially a free market for labor, that offered the newly-empowered freedmen their best economic opportunities during Reconstruction, and shutting down that free market was the goal of Reconstruction’s opponents.  The research of leftist Leon Litwack (described in his recent obituary as one who “illuminated dark corners of the American past by exploring the bitter legacy of slavery”[59]) serves us well on this matter.  His Pulitzer-prize winning book, Been in the Storm So Long:  The Aftermath of Slavery, tells how the “initial give and take between planters and laborers in wartime Louisiana impressed a northern observer for the ways in which the blacks were rapidly learning their own power and worth.  ‘They have a mine of strategy’ he reported ‘to which the planer sooner or later yields.’”  Unfortunately, that was not the happy ending to the story.  Whites had a more negative view of the freedmen’s bargaining power, as “employers now encountered free workers who looked first to their own subsistence and refused to work up to an exploitative level they deemed incompatible with their new status.  When these conflicting needs created an impasse, as they often did, the employer class was forced to look elsewhere for the kind of compulsion and guidance that might once again produce a stable and tractable labor force.”[60]

     Eric Foner, another historian with impeccable leftist credentials, tells us what those anti-capitalist measures of compulsion were in his own prize-winning book, Reconstruction:  America’s Unfinished Revolution, 1863-1877.  “Democrats upon assuming office rewrote the statute books so as to reinforce planters’ control over their labor force.”  This included vagrancy laws, laws prohibiting one employer from trying to hire someone else’s employee, and restrictions on the sale of one’s own crops.  These violations of capitalism, denying the laborer the full freedom to sell his labor to the highest bidder, and to sell his own products to the greatest advantage, were enforced only against blacks, and ignored for whites, who still enjoyed the full benefits of capitalism.[61]  After this, says Litwack, the “former slave found that all too little had changed.”[62]

     However, the opportunities of capitalism could not be forever denied to the black race.  Being no longer slaves, they were able to seek improvement by moving.  As Kendi puts it, they “used their legs as activism, escaping from rural towns to southern cities, from southern cities to border-state cities, and from border-state cities to northern cities . . . .”[63]  There was no powerful central government controlling movement, no mandatory assignment of workers to certain jobs, nor any of the apparatus of the Marxist state to hold them back.  Kendi mentions that the southern states attempted to use some of these Marxist tactics to stop the migration, but their efforts were futile in the face of American freedom, even the limited freedom enjoyed by blacks.[64]  Freedom allowed them to go wherever a better life beckoned, with jobs provided by capitalists eager to secure their labor and pay a market wage. Back to Top

     Capitalism has continued to offer opportunity, and black Americans have continued to take advantage of that fact.  We have already mentioned the rise of the black middle class, to say nothing of black millionaires and billionaires.  More recently, we saw how the Trump policies of reduced taxes and less regulation pushed black unemployment to record low levels.

     Contrast those accomplishments with the record of African socialism, such as in Ghana.  Kendi briefly mentions Kwame Nkrumah, the first president of independent Ghana, and then lapses into a convenient silence.[65]  It would not have been helpful to his theme to let the reader know that Ghana, under Nkrumah’s leadership, became a socialist basket case and a corrupt dictatorship.  As one historian put it, “one of the most prosperous countries in the tropical world at the time in independence in 1957, Ghana by 1965 had become virtually bankrupt:  it was saddled with huge debts and beset by rising prices, higher taxes, and food shortages.”   Economic decisions made by government could not equal those guided by the free market.[66]  Socialism can never compete with capitalism, regardless of the color of one’s skin.


The Danger of Critical Race Theory

     America has made significant strides toward racial equality and justice, especially during the past half-century.  Our goal should be to continue on that path, pushing to come as close to perfection as an imperfect human nature makes possible.


      But Critical Race Theory threatens to reverse our course, sharpening racial divisions and mutual suspicions, while driving policy in a direction unlikely to benefit any race.  

      An especially great concern is the infiltration of CRT into the curriculum at some of our schools, attempting to propagandize the youngest and most vulnerable among us.  The New York Times sent teaching materials based on its 1619 Project out to schools.[67]  The National Education Association has formally supported CRT.[68]  The President of the American Federation of Teachers has denounced CRT opponents as “trying to stop us from teaching kids honest history.”[69]  She has also described CRT as “an irreplaceable lens” for viewing American history.[70]  If our young people are persuaded by these lies, and carry that twisted vision of reality into adulthood, what will the consequences be?

     Pessimism about the present status of race relations and the likelihood of continued improvement will grow, leading some to support more extreme measures to bring about “equity”, including the Kendi amendment mentioned above.  Racial tensions will grow worse, mutual suspicion between the races will increase, all races will increase their demands for the preferences they believe necessary to attain justice and fairness.  A racial spoils system, doling out benefits according to the color of one’s skin, could be the result.  Of course, there would be endless conflict over how to divide the spoils, putting different races into constant warfare with one another.

     The movement toward a colorblind society would collapse, as racial identity becomes more important than one’s accomplishments.  The work ethic will suffer, personal responsibility will be regarded as an old-fashioned concept, and the focus will be on dividing the pie, rather than making a bigger pie. Back to Top

     Our economic system, so productive for so many years, will wither under heavy taxes to pay for an ever-growing welfare state, government controls (especially racial quotas), and environmental regulations justified on the grounds of overturning environmental racism.

     The freedoms which we have prized and enjoyed will have to go.  Our employment and educational opportunities will be subjected to government regulations intended to guarantee each race the “equitable” number of positions.  Non-conforming churches will lose their tax exemption and perhaps even be forced to hire government-approved clergy.  Buying a home may have to fit within racial quotas for each neighborhood.

     Law and order is likely to break down (which will be an excuse to confiscate legally-purchased firearms from law-abiding citizens while illegal guns abound in inner-city neighborhoods).  We have already seen the demands that the police be abolished or at least defunded as a requirement for racial justice.  The extreme nature of the anti-police attack can be seen in the messages from alleged police violence.  The message of the Michael Brown case is that even if a criminal attacks a police officer and tries to take the officer’s gun, the officer is not justified in using force to defend himself.  The message of the Breonna Taylor case is that even if the police are fired upon, and one of them wounded, the police are not justified in shooting back.  Will we have any policemen left if such extreme views become majority opinion?

     Is this the nation in which we want our children and grandchildren to live?

     Right now, the advocates of Critical Race Theory have the advantage.  The education establishment is on their side.  So are the media and many politicians.

     But Americans are waking up.   Critical Race Theory is no longer operating under the radar.  All over America, parents are fighting to keep this abomination out of their local schools.  Politicians are hearing the message.  Even the US Congress passed a non-binding resolution to prohibit the teaching of critical race theory in public schools.[71]

     We have truth on our side.  What we need now is activism.  We must make our voices heard at all levels – local, state, and national.   We must also remember the old adage that “personnel is policy”.  It will not be enough to have state legislatures pass laws forbidding the lies of Critical Race Theory.  The racist, pro-CRT bureaucracies from Washington, D.C. to local school districts will simply rename and repackage the same old material, and claim to comply.  Local school boards, superintendents, and those who choose the curriculum must be people who can be trusted to insist on nothing but the truth.  If not, they must be replaced.  Parents will have to be eternally vigilant to catch the first sign that CRT is creeping back into the classroom.

     A great challenge faces us, but we know what to do.  We will not meekly surrender our national, multiracial heritage to the lies and hatreds of CRT.


Recommended reading

     This brief essay gives an overview of Critical Race Theory.  To gain more in-depth knowledge, we recommend that you read the following.  Some were written as a direct refutation of the 1619 Project, but many simply describe American history according to the facts, forming a sharp contrast with the claims of Critical Race Theory.  

“The 1619 Project Exposed:  A Special Edition of the American Mind Podcast”   

The 1619 Project:  A Critique by Phillip Magness.

1620:  A Critical Response to the 1619 Project, by Peter Wood.   This is perhaps the most thorough rebuttal to the 1619 Project. Back to Top

American Scripture:  Making the Declaration of Independence by Pauline Maier

“Debunking the 1619 Project” by Phillip Magness

The Battle Cry of Freedom:  The Civil War Era by James M. McPherson

The Glorious Cause:  The American Revolution, 1763-1789 by Robert Middlekauf

Fateful Lightning:  A New History of the Civil War & Reconstruction by Allen C. Guelzo

The Hillsdale 1776 Curriculum

Inhuman Bondage:  The Rise and Fall of Slavery in the New World  by David Brion Davis

“A Matter of Facts”, The Atlantic, by Sean Wilentz

”The New York Times Resurrects the Positive Good Slavery Argument”, Law and Liberty, by W. B. Allen

The Radicalism of the American Revolution by Gordon Wood

“Reclaiming 1619”, Law & Liberty", by Kevin Gutzman

The Road to Disunion:  Secessionists at Bay, 1776-1854 and Secessionists Triumphant,

1854-1861, by William W. Freehling.  

Freehling deals extensively with the variety of opinions toward slavery in the South.

The Union War by Gary Gallagher


Organizations with additional resources

Ashbrook Center

Heritage Foundation

National Association of Scholars

National Review

Woodson Center, 1776 Unites


[1] Fyrer, Danile, “After the past few years, a scholar of race relations says he’s less optimistic”, The Washington Post, Outlook, pg. B6, September, 2021.

[2] North, David and Mackaman, Thomas, eds., The New York Times’ 1619 Project and the Racialist Falsification of History:  Essays and Interviews, Mehring Books, 2021, pg. 289-97.  This article details how the project’s own fact-checker warned that the claim was false.  For another example of this nonsense, see Holton, Woody, “The Black Role in the Declaration”, The Washington Post, July 4, 2021, Outlook Section, pg. 4.

[3] DiAngelo, Robin, White Fragility:  Why It’s So Hard for White People to Talk About Racism, Beacon Press, 2018, pg. 149.

[4] Rao, Mythili G., “To make feminism better, make it less White”, The Washington Post, August 15, 2021, Outlook Section, pg. 1.

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[5] DiAngelo, Robin, White Fragility, pg. 131-38.  There is an entire chapter on “White Women’s Tears” and why they are racist.

[6] Alexander, Michelle, The New Jim Crow:  Mass Incarceration in the Age of Colorblindness, The New Press, 2020, pg. xxxiv and 272.

[7] Kendi, Ibram X., How to Be an Antiracist, One World, 2019, pg. 183.

[8] Kendi, Ibram X., Stamped from the Beginning:  The Definitive History of Racist Ideas in America, Bold Type Books, 2016, pg. 497.

[9] Ibid., pg. 291.

[10] This refers only to slavery among the European colonists. Slavery practiced by the American Indians long before Columbus.

[11] Allen, Frederick Lewis, Only Yesterday, Harper & Row, 1959 reprint, pg. 54-55.

[12] Burner, David, The Politics of Provincialism:  The Democratic Party in Transition, 1918-1932, W.W. Norton & Company, 1967, pg. 117-18.

[13] Branch, Taylor, Parting the Waters:  America in the King Years, 1954-1963, Simon & Schuster, 1988, pg. 412-24.

[14] Sotomayor, Mariana, “Cori Bush tests the bounds of what an activist turned lawmaker can accomplish”, The Washington Post, August 18, 2021 at as of September 21, 2021.

[15] Stanley-Becker, Isaac, ”New book details Milley’s secret calls”, The Washington Post, September 15, 2021, pg. A1.

[16] Alexander, The New Jim Crow, pg. 18, 20.

[17] Kendi, Stamped from the Beginning, pg. x-xi.

[18] Kendi, Antiracist, pg. 234.

[19] Kendi, Stamped from the Beginning, pg. 362.

[20] Ibid., pg. 385.

[21] Ibid., pg. 351-52, 376.

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[22] Ibid., pg. 430.

[23] Alexander, The New Jim Crow, pg. 176.

[24] North and Mackaman, Racialist Falsification, pg. 116.

[25] Jensen, Merrill, ed., The Documentary History of the Ratification of the Constitution, Vol. I:  Constitutional Documents and Records, 1776-1787, The State Historical Society of Wisconsin, 1976, pg. 300-301.

[26] Zilversmit, Arthur, The First Emancipation:  The Abolition of Slavery in the North, The University of Chicago Press, 1967, pg. 109-200.

[27] Kendi, Stamped from the Beginning, pg. 131.

[28] Freehling, William, The Road to Disunion:  Secessionists Triumphant, Oxford University Press, 2007, pg. 14.

[29] Freehling, William W., The Road to Disunion:  Secessionists at Bay, 1776-1854, Oxford University Press, 1990, throughout but especially pg. 121-143, 197-210, 467-71, and Secessionists Triumphant, pg. 77.

[30] Randall, J. G., The Civil War and Reconstruction, D.C. Heath and Company, 1937, pg. 507-08.

[31] Thernstrom, Abigail and Thernstrom, Stephan, “Black Progress:  How Far We’ve Come and How Far We Have to Go”, Brookings Institute, 1998, at as of September 9, 2021.

[32] North and Mackaman, Racialist Falsification pg. 216.

[33] In Branch’s Parting the Waters, the index has half a column-page with references to Moses’ extensive role, pg. 1044.

[34] Valentine, Paul, “Civil rights leader fought for equality through math”, The Washington Post, July 26 2021, p. A1.

[35] Quoted in North and Mackamen, Racialist Falsification, pg. 4.

[36] Kendi, Stamped from the Beginning, 124.

[37] Alexander, The New Jim Crow, pg. 294.

[38] Ibid., pg 269.

[39] DiAngelo, White Fragility, pg. 20, 3.

[40] Kendi, Stamped from the Beginning, pg. 11.

[41] Alexander, The New Jim Crow, pg. 220.

[42] Dash, Leon, Rosa Lee:  A Mother and Her Family in Urban America, Plume Books, 1996, pg 254.

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[43] Alexander, The New Jim Crow, pg. 125.

[44] Trent, Sydney, and Guskin, Emily, “.Weary of Turmoil and Division, most teens still voice faith in future, Post-Ipsos poll finds, “, The Washington Post, August 25, 2021, at  as of September 20, 2021.

[45] “U.S. Judge Blocks $4 Billion Debt Relief Program for Minority Farmers”, Reuters, June 24, 2021, found at on September 2, 2021.

[46] Kendi, Antiracist, pg. 20, 19.

[47] Kendi, Stamped from the Beginning, pg. 416.

[48] Alexander, The New Jim Crow, pg. 297-98.

[49] Ibid, pg. 301.

[50] Kendi, Stamped from the Beginning, pg. 1-2.

[51] Kendi, Ibram X., “Pass an Anti-Racist Constitutional Amendment”,  Politico Magazine at How To Fix Inequality: Pass an Anti-Racist Constitutional Amendment - POLITICO as of September 22, 2021

[52] “Amid National Reckoning, Americans Divided on Whether Increased Focus on Race Will Lead to Major Policy Change”, Pew Research Center, October 6, 2020, at as of September 15, 2021.

[53] “White parents teach their children to be colorblind.  Here’s why that’s bad for everyone”, The Washington Post, October 5, 2018, online at as of September 15, 2021.

[54] Kendi, Stamped from the Beginning, pg. 315.  See also his comments on pg. 330.

[55] Kendi, Antiracist, pg. 156-59.

[56] Alexander, The New Jim Crow, pg. xxx.

[57] DiAngelo, White Fragility, pg. 21.

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[58] Kendi, Stamped from the Beginning, pg. 10.

[59] Schudel, Matt, “Leon Litwack, Pulitzer-prize winning scholar of America’s racial divide, dies at 91”, The Washington Post,Aug. 14, 2021 at as of September 16, 2021.

[60] Litwack, Leon, Been in the Storm So Long:  The Aftermath of Slavery, Vintage Books, 1979, pg. 374, 393.

[61] Foner, Eric, Reconstruction:  America’s Unfinished Revolution, 1863-1877, Harper & Row, 1988, pg. 593.

[62] Litwack, Storm, pg. 448.

[63] Kendi, Stamped from the Beginning, pg. 308.

[64] Ibid.

[65] Ibid., pg. 370-71.

[66] Meredith, Martin, The Fate of Africa:  A History of Fifty Years of Independence, Public Affairs, 2005, pg. 182-92, quotation on pg. 186-87.

[67] North and Mackaman, Racialist Falsification, pg. 3.

[68] Rufo, Christopher, “Going All In”, City Journal, July 15, 2021, at   as of September 22, 2021.

[69] Jacobs, Emily, “Teachers’ union president defends critical race theory as ‘accurate history’”, New York Post, July 8, 2021 at   as of September 21, 2021.

[70] Lindquist, Spencer, “Teachers Union President Claims Critical Race Theory Isn’t Taught After Her Organization Bragged About Teaching It”, The Federalist, July 8, 2021, at    as of September 21, 2021.

[71] S. Amendment 3680 to S. Con. Res. 1260, August 11, 2021 at as of September 20, 2021.

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